Stone construction techniques


Vibroflotation) Stone column construction using water flush. Seven Reasons to Prefer Building With Stone. Dept. I've broken down this "Stone Retaining Wall Basics" section into two parts: Structural Laws and; Aesthetics Amazing Techniques Construction Rendering Sand and Cement For Brick Steps. The oldest "construction drawing" is in the Temple of Apollo at Didyma. The construction techniques so used and developed has been mentioned in Hindu mythology as Purna Vastu or a perfect building is that which is properly oriented and constructed with carefully laid out norms to protect it from the evil forces of the nature, which include floods, by Michael Stone. The Conservancy holds several workshops for the general public to learn basic dry stone techniques and for advanced mason training. Stone structure should be a combination of structural firmness, technical commodity and aesthetic delight. A selection of screwdrivers is much easier to carry around than a power drill and these tools can be used for driving fasteners into wood, metal or stone. Stone-Crete is used for sound barrier walls, retaining walls, subdivision entry walls or wherever a beautiful deep relief stone wall is desired. Other than the tools that the archaeologists have found, this technique requires sticks and unfired clay, which I would assume would not have lasted the 500+ years since the last wall was built. From brick and block to pavers and stone veneers, plus so much more, Preach offers a comprehensive selection of products and materials for your building projects. Sustainable Building and Living. Mar 4, 2019 Sobrarbe-Pirineos UNESCO Global Geopark has scheduled a dry stone construction workshop for next spring, funded 90% by the Ministry of  techniques have been applied to historic preservation ultrasonic techniques aid the evaluation of welds in . Rubble Masonry 2. Dust also represents the potential for wind erosion. We have also analysed the structures of three significant stone Mamluk domes using existing and new methods  Construction Projects requiring different construction techniques to ensure optimum performance. Construction techniques showed commonalities again, with both German and British houses using the half-dovetail notch for joining log timbers at the corners of the structures (1986:270). For stabilizing soils with cement, nearly all soil types can be Stonemasonry or stonecraft is the creation of buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone as Granite is one of the hardest stones, and requires such different techniques to sedimentary stones that it is virtually a separate trade. Using tools or techniques described on PrimitiveWays can be dangerous with exposure to heavy, sharp or pointed objects, fire, stone tools and hazards present in outdoor settings. Then apply the manufactured stone to the stucco scratch. Well designed stone setting techniques must achieve several goals simultaneously – it must secure the stone, enhance both the To allow modern the use of modern construction techniques and high-performance detailing, but with a traditional appearance. • When using for framed structure, the size of the stone can be reduced which in turn Reduces the strength of the stone. 3. Mannes] on Amazon. Some of these construction techniques & materials for walls and roofs that are used many times have been described further. com • Historic Preservation Training Center HPTC Project 2016 @ Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site PA. It is a foundation that has been used successfully for thousands of Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Figure 33 The sod and topsoil in a pond construction area 56 can be stockpiled for later use Figure 34 Geometric excavation graded to create more 58 natural configuration Figure 35 Typical sections of an excavated pond 59 Figure 36 Correct disposal of waste material 60 Rough shaping of stones was accomplished by two main techniques. Stone Cold Masonry is Arizona's #1 masonry provider to local public entities, school districts, cities, private corporations, and the state of Arizona. Evaluating Masonry Construction. " Let the old saying guide Valuation of Aggregate Operations for Banking Purposes (Sand and Gravel and Crushed Stone) Aggregate consists of sand and gravel and crushed stone. How The Incas Worked Stone. We all familiar with the beauty of Rajasthan. There were usually quarries right outside the city where they would get their blocks for construction. Ask a stone yard to help determine how much material you'll need, and have it delivered as close to the site as possible. Which pronoun agrees with… Get the answers you need  Jun 9, 2017 Examples of noise reducing materials and construction techniques . Invest in a nut driver for turning hex-head screws and bolts. • The concept of having a cheap material like laterite gives a cheap look is what is hampering the usage of laterite stone. The construction process for each building is also unique. Rebuild of east headrace sections 3' +/- H dry laid stone retaining PFM-Stone & Building Art: Stone Alpine Residence Building&design - stone construction techniques,china Natural stone supplier. A major problem facing the builders of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, was that of getting the Large stone blocks to the height they required. It is very rarely used today for large buildings, but smaller residential-scale structures are being built. • Hence a life cycle cost analysis is mandatory in case of laterite. This perimeter base of packed stone is referred to as 'the rubble trench'. Indian architect was in advance mode in the era of Rajputana period. Greece has given the world the gift of philosophy, plumbing, coin money and their architectural works have inspired the designs of modern buildings. Staircases, which today are equally the responsibility of joiners The increasing demand for textbooks on the techniques of stair and carpenters, have had a varied history over the last thirty construction is due to two main factors: . Initial road construction materials were stones that were laid in a regular, compact design, and covered with smaller stones to produce a solid layer. Discover the lasting statisfaction of working with stone and learn the tricks of the trade from a master craftsman. Common methods for dust control in soil include misted water, silt fences (and similar barriers), and polymer additives. method of statement for marble stone installation,Marble Flooring,Marble Stair Treads and Risers,Marble Bases,Marble Threshold Alternative Techniques The old saying goes “the more things change, the more they stay the same. Simply mark your stone at the desired size and cut. An old stoneworker's adage describes how you should lay any stone wall: "One stone over two, two stones over one. com team show you how to build one. Ashlar Masonry. Isler's method (1985, 1987) is an incremental method and, in the Nova Start studying Art Appreciation 111 - Chapter 13: Architectural and Urban Design. locally and worked with hand tools, which makes it a viable option for construction. They also accelerate soil consolidation as a result of the drainage capacity of the granular materials within the columns which act as pore or water pressure evacuation points. Blasting and mining techniques have greatly improved. Forces acting on any member (part) of a building are, first, its own weight and, second, the loads it carries, principally from other members but also from persons, furnishings, wind, etc. To split stones for the walls, quarrymen "read" the rock face to see the lines where it will fracture. For this purpose The materials mainly used in these buildings were stone, brick and lime mortar as  A THEORY ON INCAS' STONE FITTING TECHNIQUES. Mickey Marcus , PWS, . The manufactured stone is then attached to the masonry wall by using mortar cement. Doing construction work simply isn’t going well for some people. The Stone Trust believes that there is a waller in every one of us and seeks to increase awareness about lasting, safe construction. Then you sort out your stones into different sizes, typically with piles of large, medium, and small stones. Pavers should be dry laid. Natural Stone Veneer. www. 2. Construction Techniques . Add and tamp more layers until the footing is about 8 inches below grade. When working with an architect, a consumer has choice and freedom to modify; the architect has the option of creativity. 1). HOW TO BUILD NATURAL STONE WALL, RETAINING ROCK BOULDERS DETAIL MASONRY ADVICE TUTORIAL CONSTRUCTION - Duration: Understanding Proper Dry Laid Stone Techniques Dry Stone Stacking The earliest form of stone construction is known as dry stone, or dry stacking. Dec 28, 2018 Stonehenge Megalithic tongue and groove stone construction in site may have been influenced by Egyptian construction techniques. Furthermore the construction technique of the wall is very peculiar. 1. This article is about brick house construction. Castles in England have been constructed from a number of materials including stone, brick, timber, lead, iron and tin. Sandstone is the main type of building stone used in Scotland. Masonry is a centuries-old practice that continues to be an important trade within the construction industry. Soon, all of the silverfish will come out of the stone, and they can kill them at this point, then mine all of the minerals left behind. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Bezel making and bezel setting are essential jewelry making skills. Inca architecture includes some of the most finely worked stone structures from any ancient civilization. There is no substitute for professional expertise. May 8, 2019 Sustainable architecture techniques are used in the construction of modern buildings. Building a brick house is an ancient technique used with great success in Europe and improved during the past years. (previous 400) () Cost effective construction techniques 1. Ensure proper wall construction. The masonry heater footing in the center of the house would give us an edge to screed off of, thus shortening the distance between screed points. For example, in this first photo, the wall has created by using an existing masonry wall. Other construction methods such as masonry (building with individual stones or bricks held together by mortar), reinforced or unreinforced concrete (a material made from a mixture of gravel, sand, cement and water), rammed-earth blocks (building blocks made of compressed earth), and Structural insulated panels (SIPs) (sandwich panels with engineered You can build a stone wall with natural fieldstone that you have on your property, provided the stones are flat enough for stacking. you all may won construction techniques. Related Posts. Historic masonry houses were constructed in two ways: Masonry. From Chicago's Soldier Field to the U. To allow off-site manufacturing, with reduced on-site construction. In areas of high wind, small stones are not as effective as 8-inch stones. How to build a dry-stone wall. Elpel, Author of Living Homes. beehive houses, as knowledge of their construction techniques diminishes. The art of building a structure in stone with any suitable masonry is called stone masonry. We develop & supply stonework & masonry cleaning machines, & paint removal / stone cleaning products. stone columns Close collaboration between our in-house design and construction teams ensure the  Aug 19, 2017 Stonehenge is a massive stone monument located on a chalky plain but whether this technique was actually used by the ancient builders is uncertain. Side cast wasting from bulldozer construction represents a continuous source for raveling, erosion, and mass failures. Stone cladding is manufactured by quarrying natural stone and milling it into thin pieces. In a visit to Peru in 1999, I was intrigued by the Incas' amazing ability to built walls of  Oct 30, 2007 Hellenistic era. There are so many building in Rajasthan which was more than the 1000-year-old. It may be necessary to cut some of the stones as the wall comes together: that's where the wet saw comes into play. At Stonehenge, more construction occurred around 5,000 years ago  Dec 2, 2016 Like wood construction techniques, light gauge steel construction allows for the ease in carrying such as cinder blocks, bricks, stone, etc. Waterproofing is essential as it prevents water from penetrating Buildings with enticing red – Deccan Herald – Internet Edition. The hillside entrance gave easy access to wagons bearing wheat or hay. D. To reduce waste. Whether you are veneering a garden wall or a cinder block foundation on a building, it is important that the veneer rest on a solid footing. Which pronoun agrees with the antecedent in the sentence? they you he she Construction Techniques in Medieval Cairo: the Domes of Mamluk Mausolea (1250 A. Aug 31, 2016 Developments in stone cutting techniques led to construction using stones of the more similar size and form and by the 6th century BCE, the  The projects providing knowledge in „Traditional Masonry Techniques” are used in the particular region, to the regional construction techniques and handcraft  Ancient construction techniques at Herod's Temple were more sophisticated than we Building and furnishing the Herodian Temple involved more than stone  Castles in England have been constructed from a number of materials including stone, brick, timber, lead, iron and tin. How To Build Walls. Building a house without following the National Standards of Earthquake design, the Masonry design standard and this Masonry Construction guide could produce damage on the house. Road construction techniques gradually improved by the study of road traffic, stone thickness, road alignment, and slope gradients. With a variety of remarkable stone profiles in a wide variety of colors, StoneCraft presents myriad possibilities. " Express Construction Contractors - General - Drywall Electricians - Burglar Alarm Systems - Security Camera Systems Consultants - Wire & Cable - Electric - Concrete Repair/Low Voltage Systems - Concrete - Restoration, Surveillance Equipment, Card Access - Concrete Breaking, Cutting, Sawing 7 Construction Techniques for Concrete Façades Guest Contributor - Paul Keskeys - Posted on April 26, 2017 April 26, 2017 This article is part of an ongoing series of shared content through our partnership with Architizer, a marketplace, resource, and community that connects architects to their peers, fans, and potential clients. 1. Ashlar Fine Tooled Benefits Of Stone Disadvantages Brick Masonry Of Rubble And Ashlar What The Different Types Stone Pillars Petes Masonry Services Build Coursed Rubble Rate Analysis Howmuch Cement Masonry Rock Stone Stonemasons Dublin Granite Building ← Domestic Area Design | Castle Estates →. . For the time being, the balance of evidence seems to suggest the mainstream view that primitive metal and wooden tools used by common stone masons were sufficient for cutting through granite. Historic Construction Materials & Techniques construction techniques is a fascinating subject. Living Homes Stone Masonry, Log, and Strawbale Construction Building Your High-Efficiency Dream Home on a Shoestring Budget by Thomas J. The bank barn gets its name from a simple but clever construction technique: the barn is built into the side of a hill, thus permitting two levels to be entered from the ground. Egyptians constructed the pyramids of Egypt in limestone and marble using a dry stack technique. Stone is a traditional building material that is used in many applications. Stone is immensely popular, partly because it has countless applications as a building material. Discover the lasting  Jul 1, 2017 The natural stones, stacked or mortared together, appear as a mosaic of Dry stone is one of the oldest construction techniques in the world. While there is overlap with masonry and other building trades, dry  A look at some common construction techniques from around the ancient world. Can you build a wall with nothing but stones? How long would it last? In this lesson, explore a method of building called dry stone construction Sep 20, 2019 This article describes stone construction, the different types, stone masonry techniques, and its potential as a sustainable building material. Both house types typically had exterior siding of clapboards installed at the time of construction, while some exterior walls were instead whitewashed (1986:270). At the base of the ramp leading up to the Sun Temple at Ollantaytambo lie several blocks abandoned in transit. However, when heavy blocks of stone or other construction materials had to be moved, steam powered cranes and hoists were used. Check out the slideshows above for more details about the stone and the local construction techniques which made life possible at Umm el-Jimal. The housing is so impacted with the cost based construction. Having decided upon which stone to work with, it next fell upon the prehistoric masons to move the stone from the quarry to its final resting place. If you have to buy stone, choose a flat stone, such as flagstone, or a cut stone like ashlar. ADIBA KHAN Page 2 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES IN HILLY AREA LIST OF IMAGES Figure 1 Himachal Pradesh map showing districts Figure 2 local traditional material Figure 3 deodar wood Figure 4 the local tree or flora fauna Figure 5 typical components of kath khuni building Figure 6 KATH – KHUNI STYLE Figure 6 DHAJJI DIWARI STYLE Figure 7 THATRA STYLE Yucatan Real Estate, Construction Techniques & Materials Used: Albarrada (Dry Stone Walls) As you get into the state of Yucatan and visit one of its many small villages, you’ll see the widespread use of the Albarrada. With the largest number of classically trained stone carvers in North America, we set the standard for heritage masonry restoration and building preservation, using centuries-old stone carving techniques. In fact, a careful study of the history of the Great Wall of China alone can tell you a lot about the evolution of Chinese construction design and methods. The pleasure and challenge of including gems in a jewelry object (beyond the intrinsic beauty of the gem, of course) is to resolve the various factors that come into play. The earliest documented use of lime as a construction material was  Ground improvement techniques: Comparing grouted vs. Pages in category "Construction techniques" The following 400 pages are in this category, out of 860 total. The finish on the stone walls can be either rough or smooth. History. Soil stabilization can be achieved by pulverizing the natural soil or borrow material, mixing in a chemical additive, and thoroughly compacting the mixture. Then, from the footings on up to the roof, author Thomas J. If the blue stones transported by people of Wales and not brought here by glaciers were as Aubrey Burl suspects there are many methods that huge stone with ropes and wood to move. Groins that are too Learn About Dry Stone Dry Stone Mason Scholarship Why the Dry Stone Conservancy? History of Dry Stone Construction Our Board and Staff Helpful Links About Us Contact; Certifications Certification Certification Levels Certified Masons Marenakos Rock Center Workshop and Certification 2019 Fall Certification Exams Basic carpentry skills are necessary to be able to complete home renovation, home building and other construction projects. • Metal Truss Standard 5: Distinctive features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of . A resource for timber frame construction details, joints and joinery that will help you get your timber frame project off the sawhorses and into the air. by using new masonry techniques, combining traditional concrete and stone in  Mar 5, 2019 On this page: Overview; Step Up to Indoor airPlus; Radon-Resistant Construction Techniques. Building with rock dates back to the beginning of human history. construction trades are determined by construction law international standards construction management – on different levels the phase out (transformation) of vernacular architecture safety regulations quality management TQM 10. Participants learn international standards in dry stone masonry and then participate in building projects to upgrade their skills. Part 1 describes building techniques for round buildings using stones and earth. Family owned and operated since 1964, Stone Construction Inc. ” This adage, in many ways, can be applied to the discussion of riverbank stabilization. It must be protected Roof-to-Wall and Deck- to-Wall Flashing www. This chapter Historic Masonry Construction. The work on the Capitol and in the quarries was done largely by hand. They then drive a line of holes into the stone and then pound corners into the holes, which makes shock waves go through the stone and break it. A carpenter or home renovator needs to be able to layout a building site; determine the elevations of a site excavation, and concrete footing and other components; build concrete footing and wall forms; frame and sheath floors, walls and roofs; and build stairs. Overview. Shelter protects people from the weather, shields them against wild animals and insects, and provides a place to rest. Methods of our work are: · Gathering and documenting of specific local knowledge in dry-stone construction techniques; Asheville Drystone Joe provides hands-on dry workshops & K-12 artist residencies about dry stone masonry, Learn Stone Masonry Techniques and more Individual, rammed earth bricks can be formed and used with standard building techniques; in fact, such bricks may be used to form the floors in a rammed earth house built with other techniques. Designing Your Home to Survive Wildfires Murray Milne, Research Professor of Architecture, UCLA. A Web Gallery of Stone Buildings and Their Building Stone . These columns achieve their strength by the lateral restraint offered by the surrounding soil. It’s a sedimentary rock, formed of layers, and is much more resistant to weight when the layers are horizontal. There are different procedures for various types of stone wall construction. Soil Investigations for Building Foundations – Science and Techniques. com), was brought in to instruct and guide the foundation building process. Stone Nature Construction is a Cape Town based company that specialises in natural stone work construction and supplying natural stone. Without proper care and caution, or if done incorrectly, there is a risk of property damage, personal injury or even death. The choice of these are based on their cost effectiveness for building A dry-stack stone retaining wall is just the thing for a sloping yard. So, there are various cost effective techniques of construction. The more you play with a stone, the more likely it's going to break. 5 kg. This portion of our website highlights tips and techniques I've picked up over the years concerning stone retaining wall construction. Alan has been working with stone for 30 years and had a huge wealth of knowledge and experience to pass along to us throughout the week. Techniques. Another way to make a stone wall is to use a wood frame, with exterior plywood which you apply stucco scratch to. Masonry Chimney Construction Guidelines Masonry Chimney Foundation An adequate concrete footing is required and must be able to support the weight of the chimney and/or fireplace. This brief introduction suggests just some of the basic issues involved in this aspect of Manitoba’s architectural history. This study, the result of a collaboration between the Laboratoire archéomatériaux et First castles appeared thousands of years ago, and during that time techniques for their construction went through many changes. The construction requires two builders, one on each side, with the more skilled one laying stones on the exterior face that normally remains un-plastered. By Tom & Kay Benham For this piece, the artists had to find a stone setting for their minimal opal and lapsis intarsia. gov Technical Fact Sheet No. The rock quarry - this can still be found in the city of Machu Picchu. For example, you'll be picking up this big heavy stone and moving it around and making marks on the stone and cutting it a little bit, then repeating this process in order to finally lay the stone. Can you build a wall with nothing but stones? How long would it last? In this lesson, explore a method of building called dry stone construction and learn about some techniques and benefits. Hayward Baker has designed and constructed over 1,000 projects using vibro replacement, a technique developed by our affiliate company, Keller, in Europe. Reproduction Ancient Egyptian stone mason’s tools used for carving demonstrations. The method for raising a large stone. Introduction. The higher cost and poor insulation used to be two of the main drawbacks of this construction system, but in the last 20 years the engineers have come with innovations as to mitigate these aspects. Stone Construction Stone is a traditional building material that is used in many applications. The substructure 1 Construction usually begins with digging a pit that will hold the foundation. Concept of prefabrication/partial prefabrication has been adopted for speedier construction, better quality components & saving in material quantities & costs. This technique stacks stone upon stone, without mortar, and requires great skill. This is a modern castle constructed by the owners with precast concrete stone molds. -1517A. They tended to favoured remote locations, examples of which can still be found at Fountains Abbey, Jervaulx Abbey, Ellerton Abbey and Bolton Priory in North Yorkshire. Many major breakthroughs - pushed forward by experimental science in the seventeenth century - began to inform the form, shape, and design of buildings. like cement and steel as well as improving quality in construction. Using large stones is one thing, but when on comes across examples of stones being moved weighing hundreds of tonnes when smaller stones would have been far more ergonomically efficient (such as the three 'foundation' stones at Baalbek), it becomes clear that the size of the stone itself was a consideration in the process of construction. Proper dress to perform masonry installation is required. The earliest examples of stone masonry in both the 'Old' and 'New' worlds demonstrates a high skill level, something which is often suggested as being a result of the existing knowledge of carpentry at the transition in working from wood to stone. New insights into ancient pyramid construction techniques presented in this [4] The use of leveraging towers with counter-weights for lifting stones out of a  Its design and construction can only be described as one of the world's great The various courses of stones, built layer upon layer and the method by which  Dr R H G Parry has suggested a method for rolling the stones, using a cradle-like machine that  Mar 11, 2016 Sheila wants to study castles so _____ can understand stone construction techniques. Take a look at various mortar techniques below. India is the developing country having only 20% population of higher You have to dig a level trench and make sure that it is level. One will see that all these structures are build not only on the foundations with the state-of-the-art construction techniques but also on man’s never-ending efforts toward improvement, advancement and evolution of the Stone has many “green” characteristics that few materials can match. Explore the range of natural stones available at Quality  Oct 29, 2017 The most commonly employed construction technique using large blocks “the work is to be filled in with concrete of stone, lime and sand” . Load bearing masonry construction was the most widely used form of construction for large buildings from the 1700s to the mid-1900s. The variety of stone available in the Greater Spokane area and North Idaho is unmatched. Basic Brick Construction http://www. This section of our website is intended to inform homeowners and amateur wallers about the fundamental aspects of dry stone wall building. Keywords: Cost Effective Construction Techniques . 3. They use modern construction methods mixed with medieval techniques to build wonderful modern day castles that will last for centuries to come. the construction cost, including material and labor cost, can be saved by using the low cost housing technologies in comparison with traditional construction methods for walling and roofing respectively. Advanced Construction Techniques Concrete Pavements Professor Kamran M. The diagram below shows a span of five arches. This brief poles, bark, tall grass, stone, mud, logs, even the. StoneCraft manufactured stone veneer provides the distinction of quarried stone, at a fraction of its price, weight and installation time. Here you can learn the most important facts about those techniques and the most popular technologies that were utilized by countless castle builders. There are, however, some technical terms associated with this subject that need further clarification. Table 41. Heavy Timber Frame Construction bent Qadir Zaman Khan was mentioned as dar-har-ek-phan-ustad-e-kamil, ie an expert in construction techniques which consisted of digging and filling the foundations, masonry, stone laying, lifting large weight blocks by ropes and pulleys, handling levels, maintaining drainage and dozens of other techniques in addition. Next you mark out the area where you'll be building your wall—with taut lines of string, by drawing chalk lines on the ground, using wooden stakes, or in some other way. It aims at re-establishing dry-stone as an efficient, aesthetical, humane and sustainable option for the construction of simple buildings and structures in the Mediterranean. There is an aura of timelessness about stone houses, as if they have always been there and always will be. Several factors contribute to a terminal groin’s performance, as well as its potential impacts on adjacent shorelines. We do stone cladding at a very competitive price from our base in Cape Town. As technologies and techniques have advanced in finding ways to secure our land from the constant ravages of erosion, we construction and improper structural configuration. 23 – Roof-to-Wall and Deck-to-Wall Flashing Home Builder’s Guide to Coastal Construction Page 1 of 3 Purpose: To emphasize the importance of proper roof and deck flashing, and to provide typical and enhanced flashing techniques for coastal homes. Prehistoric Construction Techniques. The additive can be either portland cement, lime or salt (sodium chloride). To a large degree the choice of material  Apr 12, 2018 Moreover, given the great availability of the construction materials (stones and wood), Bhatar may be a valuable alternative building technique  The bearers and practitioners include the rural communities where the element is deeply rooted, as well as professionals in the construction business. Furthermore, the Romans developed techniques such as constructing rows of arches on top of other arches. So, the Incas had no major difficulties in constructing the stone blocks. Wood, cement, aggregates, metals, bricks, concrete, clay are the most common type of building material used in construction. How to Build a Stone Foundation. Magnetic  Feb 27, 2017 Explore 11 vernacular building techniques that are in danger of being lost structure, constructed out of adobe, brick, and stone found in the area. May 19, 2017 One important technique he learned from his uncle was lime mortar. The principal consumers of sand and gravel and crushed stone materials are the highway and building construction industries. 20 TH CENTURY C Temporary structures and construction equipment general automation at the end of the century Sheila wants to study castles so _____ can understand stone construction techniques. Engineering Construction Techniques A. Waterproofing in building construction is the process of making a structure water-resistant or impervious to the ingress of water. There is a certain irresistible charm about a stone house, and I simply would not settle for anything less. The low-maintenance material. It is therefore very essential that the shear strength of the surrounding soil not be reduced by the construction of the stone column. The most Full-scale in-situ testing on stone masonry walls have been previously carried on   through its tropically inclined indigenous materials and construction techniques . The Central and State Construction Departments, Housing Boards, These people are great stone masons, with many years experience. Stone construction had been replaced to a large degree by adobe bricks, which means that it is important to keep the buildings plastered to keep moisture from weakening the adobe bricks, so this is done on a regular basis. Build Your Own Stone House: Using the Easy Slipform Method (Down-To-Earth Building Book) [Karl Schwenke, Sue Schwenke] on Amazon. . Inca buildings were almost always practical and pleasing to the eye. That's been well documented by U. IV. Freestanding mortared walls, like the fieldstone one I'm building here, need a stable, frost-proof footing to prevent shifting, and that requires a lot of digging in cold climates. By building radon-resistant new  CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES - Ancient Greece and Rome: An Both mud-brick and stone houses had dirt floors that were stamped flat. Stone contains no pollutants, releases no chemicals, and needs no substances to be used in construction. The design professional should consider the origi-nal design intent, particularly in terms of how the stone type, surface dress- PDF | The paper deals with an introduction and implementation of super performing building materials and techniques all in terms of energy saving efficiency of the material, cost efficiency Budgeting and Cost Estimating for Construction Projects Methods and Techniques Budgeting and cost estimating are essential tools in the construction industry and play a central role in both preconstruction and construction phases of a project. Below are the three most common forms of creating hand built pots: pinchpot, coiling and slab techniques. construction materials and decoration patterns. sometimes called, is a construction method made up of prefabricated masonry units (such as concrete block, brick, clay tile, and stone) laid in various ways and joined together by mortar. The plateau on which the city was built was also the place where the construction materials were extracted. Construction techniques and design There are a lot of speculation about how Stonehenge was built. Again accurately cut stone has been used on external faces and the cavities have been filled with gravel, sand and rough stone. The most common form of shelter would be that of housing, however shelter has evolved into many different forms, including (but not limited to) bomb shelters, bus shelters, tents, trailers and even houseboats. Their action encounters a reaction in opposing forces that hold the member in place by resisting at its joints. the method shown at left, is the only one proven to have been used. Riprap is stone of various types that is used to protect, or armor, a shoreline or river bank. Check out Castle McKenzie. A Solid Footing. Historic Building Cleaning & Restoration Consultants. Like most ground improvement techniques, stone columns are used to reduce settlement and increase load-bearing capacity. This paper studies change and criterion the pattern in which the stones are laid continuity of ashlar construction techniques dur- . The images below show just a few of the most popular mortar techniques: standard concave, over mortared and grapevine. 2008), and confirm the affinity between the stone used for the construction of  Apr 29, 2019 Rubble masonry, also known as rubblework, is the use of undressed, rough stone, generally for the construction of walls. e. These are freestanding structures such as field walls, bridges and buildings that use irregularly shaped stones carefully selected and placed so that they fit closely together without slipping. The center provides knowledge and skills in terms of both traditional and contemporary techniques of how to handle the construction using stones, the design of the center itself is a showcase of stone construction techniques today, it proves that there is always a way to enroll the use of ancient materiel in a contemporary architecture and thus this minimizes the impact on the environment while maintaining a glimpse of the heritage and most of all protecting it from disappearing. Temples and tombs figured high within the main religious rituals. Bouassida, Mounir and Hazzar, Lassaad, "Comparison Between Stone Columns and Vertical Geodrains with Preloading Embankment Techniques" (2008). Tips to Build a French Drain With Gravel and Stone. Dry stone walls were preferred, as the humble and purist construction techniques were symbolic of their theological foundation. In this article, Shawn Van Dkye provides the instructions for how to develop a unit-cost method to estimate construction costs . Construction requires a certain level of pre-thought that a common construction worker simply cannot handle, which can lead to some hilariously funny construction solutions, that are luckily captured by he eye of the camera so that we can enjoy the photographs of these wonderful technological fails. It has an aura of permanence, giving a timeless quality to even the newest landscaping. The pictures above illustrate the sophisticated construction techniques applied to the Stonehenge sarsen-stones, which are dated at approximately 2,500 BC, however if we follow Lockyer's lead, and look closer at Egyptian masonry, we find similar features were applied to construction of the the Osirion (above), a temple dated to a far earlier time, and a site suggested by Lockyer to have alignments suggesting an association to the summer-solstice sunrise (2). How to build a stone wall: Dig a trench that's below the frost line and 2 feet wider than the wall. Dry stone  Jan 8, 2019 traditional Italian houses with new construction techniques. The principal construction uses include: An Overview of Natural Building Techniques JOSEPH F. Stone can be an effective dust deterrent for construction roads and entrances or as a mulch in areas where vegetation cannot be established. Vernacular Architecture: The Indigenous Materials and Construction Techniques of Ghana . Sandstone is prone to erosion if subjected to water and wind over time. This dry stone wall is made by hand, and consists of walls made with stones of different sizes without using any mortar to of the probe or the casing depending upon the soil type, its undrained shear strength, stone size, characteristics of the vibrating probe/rammer used and the construction method. Construction and Building Materials provides an international forum for the dissemination of innovative and original research and development in the field of   TECHNIQUES FOR. html 1 of 13 8/30/06 3:00 PM The best way to learn the art of bricklaying is through hands-on A collection of various sizes of both flathead and Phillips screwdrivers is a necessity throughout a construction project. The wall thickness should not exceed 450mm. An unfinished stone wall was etched with the profiles of columns and mouldings, and the wall was never finished so the drawing was not erased: a rare glimpse into the history of working construction drawings. During its long development, it gradually formed into a style which featured timberwork combining stone carving, rammed earth construction, bucket arch buildings and many other techniques. Methods of Stone Masonry Construction Masonry walls normally consist of two parts with an infill in between. Dry stone construction is a separate construction technique and profession from masonry. Since the discussion of construction techniques to lift the blocks attempts to resolve a gap in the archaeological and historical record with a plausible functional explanation, the following examples by Isler, Keable, and Hussey-Pailos list experimentally tested methods. Building material is any material used for construction purpose such as materials for house building. Stone Columns. CPESC •Gravel/stone construction entrance. Types of Stone Column Construction Vibro-Replacement (Wet Top Feed) (i. Hence, the stone column technique could be adopted in clays of low sensitivity. Stone's primary use in Ghana's indigenous architecture is as a critical  and building processes used in the construction of enable him to embed a great block of stone, of several . Stone-Setting Techniques You’ll Learn: How to Set a Stone in a Bezel for Beginners. STONE MASONRY 2. Natural stone such as bluestone can be dry laid or wet laid. Stonework Techniques and Projects by Charles McRaven . By the end of this unit students will be able to: 1. Most do not realize the infinite world of hand building and the artistic possibilities it opens. DIFFICULT. works with a variety of industries and provides full-service commercial general contracting and construction throughout the Twin Cities. Historic Construction Materials & Techniques The evolution of building materials and construction techniques is a fascinating subject. stone in church and cathedral construction using metal in gothic cathedral construction cathedral labyrinths and mazes in France cathedrals and cloisters of Franceby Elise Whitlock Rose the perpendicular or English style of cathedral Romanesque churches and cathedrals in south-west France Long-term durability isn't an issue with a sound wood foundation. but also related fields such as drafting and blueprint reading or construction conservation. Due to its higher modulus of elasticity than that of soil, it absorbs more load than soil and reduces overall settlement. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Stone. Before developing a stone treatment, it is necessary to develop an under-standing of the history and condition of the existing building. The first thing you can see is that a dry-stone wall is much wider than a brick wall: where a brick wall can be as narrow as a single brick width, a dry-stone wall has to be wider to create a dense mass of self-supporting material that won't collapse. Prehistoric Stone Sculpture. com. Stone Masonry The construction of stones bonded together with mortar is termed as stone masonry where the stones are available in a abundance in nature, on cutting and dressing to the proper shape, they provide an economical material for the construction of various building components such as walls, columns, footings, arches, lintels The workers use traditional techniques from the 13th century. First employed in the town of Cosa sometime after 273 BCE, its widespread use was a key event in the Roman architectural revolution, and freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick material and allowed for revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural complexity and dimension. S. Dates and locations for workshops vary. and Construction Techniques This subject is also addressed in Historic Materials and Construction Techniques, where basic definitions of materials and construction techniques are explained. In al- Andalus, the development of stone techniques in fortifications is  choice of suitable materials and construction techniques. Building a Patio Methods for Pavers, Concrete and Stone Dry Laid and Wet Laid. Stone Masonry Construction A Brief Overview by Thomas J. Installation of stone column improves ground by reducing soil settlement. Techniques of Staircase Construction: Technical and Design Instructions for Stairs Made of Wood, Steel, Concrete, and Natural Stone [W. Many royal landowners bankrupted themselves trying to pay for the cost of colossal stone buildings, and the pride of cities depended upon their ability to finish a cathedral once begun. Concrete has its own installation method. Vibro replacement is the construction of dense aggregate columns (stone columns) with a down-hole vibrator suspended from a crane or specially built rig. Explore the vernacular architectural heritage of Ghana through its tropically inclined indigenous materials and construction techniques. Dust control measures apply to any construction site where there is the potential for air and water pollution from dust traveling across the landscape or through the air. The lower level housed animals, the upper levels served as threshing floor and storage. Several scientific works presenting overviews of Khmer stone petrography . Leaving aside the earlier but more controversial effigies, and the flat engravings seen in Paleolithic rock art, the first prehistoric sculpture in stone was the series of Venus figurines which began appearing across Europe from about 30,000 BCE. Explain the terminology used in construction technology. quikrete. Refers to the wet, top feed process in which jetting water is used to aid the penetration of the ground by the vibrator. So you can either work with lots and lots of small rock, or you can use a template. (See the dry-laid stone wall diagrams in the image gallery. Lau INTRODUCTION Medieval and Renaissance Cairo is significant in the evolution of dome construction. Overview of Approach . " An aura of mystery has always hung about the great "walls" at Saqsaywaman and Ollantaytambo (spellings vary). Some construction-related companies hire estimators to estimate, and sales people to sell. The materials used for building Mayan structures were normally types of stone found in the area surrounding the city. Since India is a developing country, the economy haves importance. A foundation can be built for free out of stone on your land. To avoid this disaster, have a level on hand and check the foundation before you lay the first stone. Rome in the Footsteps of an XVIIIth Century Traveller. With ancient Egyptians, construction was inseparably associated with religious rituals. It can usually be obtained locally and worked with hand tools, which makes it a viable option for construction. Since applied load distributes in between soil and stone column in the ratio of their stiffness, the load carrying capacity of soil also increases. As it’s relatively soft, sandstone can be easier to shape and carve than other stones. When building a patio, various patio construction methods should be used for different paving materials. Construction Techniques. Next, I constructed the heater form, read the code book and calculated the amount of concrete it would take to make the hefty footing for the masonry heater. Throughout the centuries, construction techniques naturally grew more advanced as different dynasties repaired and built on the earlier walls. Key Issues Every time the poison hurts the silverfish, it will call any nearby silverfish out of the stone, then it will get healed by the regeneration potion, so it can keep getting hurt instead of being pinned at 1 health. In most areas where stone is available, it has been favoured over other materials for the construction of monumental architecture. Source for information on Construction Techniques: Arts and Humanities Through the Eras dictionary. When ancient Greeks first saw the monumental stone pyramids and structures of Egypt around the 6th century BCE, they quickly abandoned wood-column temple construction in favor of stone, eventually perfecting the sublime vocabulary of Classical column orders. Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together. These easy-to-understand drawings provide some of the construction techniques you need to make your home buyer's dreams come true. It lets the workers cut a stone in the shape of the opening in the wall in one try, so the stone has to be lifted only once. MOTHER's Country Skills column discusses using techniques for dry-laid stone walls on the homestead. The chief obstacles to construction of these buildings were the costs of material supplies and journeyman tradesmen, and the expertise of engineering required. Elpel guides you through the nuts and bolts of construction for slipform stone masonry, tilt-up stone walls, log home construction, building with strawbales, making your own terra tile floors, windows and Building Construction Materials and Techniques follows a unique approach to the subject by including both materials and construction techniques in a combined text as per the latest trends in university curriculums. Construction techniques in various kinds of major infrastructures together with their histories are explained and overviewed. Introduction . Relying solely on an age-old craft to create sturdy Construction techniques and design There are a lot of speculation about how Stonehenge was built. fema. Construction TechniquesBuilding with Masonry. Dry stone stacking is the earliest form of stone construction. Before the advent of manufactured building Stone Masonry BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1. Using radiocarbon dating on metal found in Gothic cathedrals, an interdisciplinary team has shown, for the first time through absolute dating, that iron was used to reinforce stone from the construction phase. They are also remarkably uniform in design with even grand imperial structures taking on a similar look to more humble The "ToolBox" Full of Resources, Information & Details on How to Build Barns and More If you are getting ready to build a barn, we hope that our website will assist you in becoming more knowledgeable of different barn types & styles, building techniques, construction terms and much more! Starting with the use of cement with brick, stucco, stone, …Brick Masonry Techniques Part I – Masonry Techniques. com - id: 25720f-YjI3M Stone House Construction is a comprehensive study of Australian stone building techniques in a residential context. If it is not level, add more crushed stone. it is necessary to determine the characteristics of the soil at the site of construction Together with European and Arabian architecture, ancient Chinese architecture is an important component of the world architectural system. As a result, more and more people could afford to own a brick or stone home. ) Barbara Cipriani and Wanda W. Stone Age Technology In 2003, Wally Wallington, a retired construction worker from Michigan who built a Stonehenge replica in his yard, demonstrated a low-tech way to move large objects by placing SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. the stone blocks during construction. Abstract: This paper studies and analyzes the use of stone and traditional stone building techniques in Bosnian modern architecture from 1945 to 1965. CONSTRUCTION SITES. Photo: Building a dry-stone wall in Langton Matravers, Dorset. One shows small holes pecked into a natural groove into which wedges were driven to split the stone. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR MASONRY FIREPLACE AND CHIMNEY CONSTRUCTION. The responsibility for compiling accurate estimates for a construction company normally falls onto the shoulders of the salesperson. See some adults class hand building projects and some Children's Handbuilding Projects done in our studio. Like most ground improvement techniques, stone columns are used to reduce There are a wide variety of construction methods (dry and wet, vibrating probes  Stone Arch Bridges. Basement Construction Checklist Before your home buyer's dream home can become a reality, your basements must be built with the same quality construction standards you use throughout your homes. On steep slopes, bulldozers should only be used in combination with special construction techniques (trench excavation, see Section 6. After all, the owner-builder can now select from many intriguing low cost shelter possibilities including log, cordwood, wood frame, pole, adobe, and earth-sheltered homes plus yurts, domes, tipis, houseboats, and an endless variety of innovative salvage-material structures. The stone masonry in which either undressed or roughly dressed stone are laid in a suitable mortar is called rubble masonry. Stone Arch Bridge Rehabilitation. Describe the different techniques used to construct a range of substructures and superstructures, including their function and design selection criteria. It should not be surprising that such an abundant, indigenous, long-lasting and useful material would be utilized by our forebears. Stone-Crete's mass production techniques minimize costly masonry work while providing the structural and aesthetic quality of concrete. Flat or cut stones are much easier to work with than fieldstone and will make a sturdier wall. Capitol Since 1972, we have been helping contractors and homeowners in the Phoenix metropolitan area with their building supply needs. The recognition Ancient Romans did not receive from art historians came from modern engineers who investigated and admired the construction techniques the Romans used to build roads, aqueducts, baths, tribunals, circuses, walls and obviously temples and houses. Complete instructions on tools, materials, estimating, siting, excavating, and using and removing forms. Length, height, permeability, type of material, and groin configuration are all factors that affect a terminal groin’s behavior. Observations on the Materials and Techniques Used in 19th Century American Architectural Presentation Drawings To give a stone wall texture, for instance, it construction technology solution. Certain ancient Egyptian words were used to describe architectural drawings, foundations and construction works well as the purpose of religious building. Tim Yates of the Building Research Establishment Ltd assesses recent research into the thermal performance of solid wall construction in traditional buildings and looks at the risks and benefits of introducing various wall insulation systems, where these are appropriate The aesthetics are much more pleasing than the step pyramid, but the construction isn't really that different. No building material rivals stone for beauty, permanence, and enduring popularity. Later the Arabs built roads that were covered with tar. While we know already that stones as heavy as 1000 tons were being moved in prehistory, these are the more exceptional cases. Elpel Living Homes includes in-depth coverage of slipform stone masonry, building an efficient masonry fireplace, measuring and mixing concrete, footings and foundations, plus tilt-up stone masonry construction. A number of these photographs show the hand tools that were used. ) Mortar has its place, but a stone Techniques will be discussed in terms of the characteristics of building materials and the methods by which they are used in architecture (see building construction). Stone masonry may be broadly classified into the following two types: 1. Construction and Religious Rituals . The concrete will become hard in a matter of hours, but takes a month to reach its full strength. The most basic form  Sep 29, 2018 To understand the specificity of Islamic fortified construction in central . With its diamond blade, it cuts the stones pretty easily. Materials Stone. From the mid-1800s through about 1900, the industrial revolution and steam power also helped make masonry building materials cheaper and more readily available. by means of minor-destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques (see fig. It was in effect an enormous three dimensional stone puzzle. Due to the jetting action, part of the in-situ soil is washed to the surface. From installing brick walls and stone patios to bathroom tile and concrete blocks, there are dozens of viable applications for the art of masonry. (St. Check with local code to determine minimum requirements for all footings and reinforcements. Alan Ash, a master stone mason (thestonemason. Once the steel is in place, one can start to prepare the concrete, by mixing cement, sand, stone chips in a range of sizes, and water in a cement mixer, and pouring in the liquid concrete into the formwork tilll exactly the right level is reached. Limestone was plentiful in most of the Mayan settlements. This new technique involved the construction of . Round stone boulders should not be used in the construction! Instead, the stones should be shaped using chisels and hammers. com/diy/BasicBrickConstruction. The earliest examples of stone masonry in both the 'Old' and 'New' worlds  Dec 12, 2013 Stone Masonry The construction of stones bonded together with mortar is termed as stone masonry where the stones are available in a  Techniques and Projects by Charles McRaven. Learning Outcomes . They decided that a simple jewelry bezel would make the perfect frame. The force of the stones on top support and stabilize the walls. Natural Stone and Modern Methods of Construction – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. From commercial construction like buildings and bridges to backyard DIY projects like garden walls and pathways, stone has earned its place as a time-tested resource. No energy is needed to manufacture stone, only for quarrying and processing. RockinWalls. To a large degree the choice of material for the main walls was driven by the availability of local supplies and, in later years where defensive strength was less important, fashion. Mud Architecture - Construction Details And Techniques “The thing that hit me in the eye, right from the beginning, was that an enormous amount of use was made of mud! The first thing I discovered was that mud is one thing in one place and a different thing in another. years. It’s known that seventeenth century construction techniques still relied heavily on trade-sharing rules of thumb and widespread use of scale models before building. Each row of the table below is a link to a page with larger-format images and explanatory text. In order to quickly produce accurate construction estimates, you need to develop a unit-cost method for estimating your construction projects. While the dry stone technique is most commonly used for the construction of  Besides, a stone house can outlast any other kind of construction by be sure to check out Building Stone Walls and Stonework: Techniques and Projects. Take in these seven benefits of natural stone building materials: It ages beautifully. The craftsmen employed carpentry techniques - the lintels were dressed with mortises that would have fitted securely on to the tenons on top of the supporting sarsens, while tongues similar to toggle joints linked each lintel in the outer circle to its neighbour. Living Homes takes you through the planning process to design an energy and resource efficient home that won't break the bank. As a result, housing industry studies have The manufactured stone is then attached to the masonry wall by using mortar cement. The use of red laterite stone in construction is cost effective as well as giving …Advantages The cost of laterite masonry is approximately half the cost of … The advantage of traditional construction techniques, particularly in housing construction, but also in industrial building, is the level of uniqueness achieved. International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering . The following steps give a general idea of the most common construction techniques. Riprap is often a mixture of granite, limestone and concrete rubble in chunks spread along the shore. Techniques for construction of walls and roofs were developed with a view to make an optimum use of local materials such as soil, bricks, lime and timber. Keep reading to learn more about masonry and the many benefits it offers The Granite Kiss: Traditions and Techniques of Building New England Stone Walls "In this elegant, literate primer, a master stonemason imparts the fundamentals of building traditional New England dry stone walls, along with thoughts on the history, aesthetics, and philosophy of the craft of placing stone. The wet saw is the perfect tool to rent when building a retaining wall. Providing for not only a source of warmth, masonry fireplaces add character, charm and value. Which Materials we use? z Cement Coming in bags of 42. If the trench and the crushed stone don’t form a level foundation, your fieldstone wall won’t stand the test of time. Which is also known as the pink city. Many cultures have left durable evidence of their fine craftsmanship with stone masonry. Most commonly used was limestone. In the early projects of pioneers and the first generations of architects of the toric stone to last through the years. The power for hoisting loads was provided by horses and at times by men. Throughout the Middle Ages, the most prestigious and durable edifices—castles, churches, and palaces—were built of stone. Inca stonework is famous for its large stones (some over 100 tons), which are fitted so precisely that "a knife cannot be inserted into the joints. Dry stone structures are stable because of their unique construction method, . Stone Age Construction Techniques Are Hurting Your Business Brigham Timpson | September 14, 2016 In a world where technology has rapidly changed the way we live and work, the construction industry has been notoriously slow to adopt these types of improvements. Proper construction techniques are everything. Nemati Fall Quarter 2016 Advanced construction Techniques Replace the existing pavement with 12 inches PCCP over the existing crushed stone base Thursday evening to Monday morning closures to construct the intersection square area Detour traffic over surrounding surface A stone wall makes a statement that is at once both casual and stately. Standard rammed earth construction involves erecting wood forms and compacting Technical Guidelines & Information for Stone Construction In Uttarakhand Disaster Mitigation and Management Centre, Dehradun, (An Autonomous Institute of the Department of Like most ground improvement techniques, stone columns are used to reduce settlement and increase load-bearing capacity. INTRODUCTION A well constructed masonry fireplace adds several elements of interest to the home. When wood foundations fail, it's always a case of poor construction techniques. A collection of stones piled one on top of the other, dry stone is an iconic building method found just nearly everywhere in the world. KENNEDY Introduction Over the past several decades, numerous vernacular building methods have been investigated and, in some cases, revived and improved upon by a new breed of visionary designer-builder. Let the DIYNetwork. In the Builder Basic training manual, we covered concrete masonry units (CMUs) in depth, and the construction techniques used to lay them. Alan is a real character, and a joy to work with! He knows how to get’er done! Different dome construction techniques Usually the next question someone asks after "what is a geodesic dome?" is "How do I build one?" so below are a few different ways you could go about building a geodesic dome. The important need and everyones dream to have there own home with individual needs. It also caters to the needs of the universities where these subjects are offered across two semesters as well. •Temporary diversions. This quaint page is a gallery of images of buildings and the stones of which they are built. of Agriculture's Forest Service testing. The roads were constructed by preparing earthworks and lifting the road foundation at the center for water drainage. Diameter usually varies from 800 to 1500 mm 2) Pattern of arrangement: Stone columns should be installed preferably in an equilateral triangular pattern Masonry Installation Tips. Line it with landscape fabric overlapped 12 inches at the seams, add a 6-inch layer of ¾-inch stone, and tamp it with a plate compactor. The construction being used when the Spanish arrived in the sixteenth century was very similar to that described above. Masonry noise barriers can be made of concrete blocks, brick or stone. It has a strong theme of historic stone buildings, as traditional forms of building respond to the need for structural integrity and stability over time against weathering. As homeowners begin to rebuild after the recent wildfires, there are a few basic architectural design decisions that will greatly improve the chances that their home will survive the next wildfire. stone construction techniques

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